How are lasers used in Ophthalmology?
Lasers have the following applications in ophthalmology:
- Periorbital skin rejuvenation.
- Treatment of vascular and pigmented eyelid lesions.
- Reshape the cornea in vision correction to improve nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism. Refractive surgical procedures include LASIK.
- Remove/reduce certain superficial defects such as band keratopathy in the cornea. The procedure is called phototherapeutic keratoplasty.
- Place a window in a membrane called the posterior capsule if it opacifies following cataract surgery. The capsule holds the intraocular lens implant in place. The procedure is called YAG capsulotomy.
- Create a hole in the peripheral iris to prevent or treat an acute attack of narrow angle glaucoma. The procedure is called laser peripheral iridotomy.
- Place spots in the meshwork ("drain" of the eye) to lower eye pressure in open angle glaucoma. The procedure is called laser trabeculoplasty.
- Place spots in the ciliary body (produces fluid in the eye) to lower eye pressure in severe glaucomas. The procedure is called diode laser cyclophotocoagulation.
- Place spots in the peripheral retina to treat proliferative diabetic retinal disease. The procedure is called panretinal photocoagulation.
- Place spots in the central retina for leakage in diabetic macular edema. The procedure is called focal retinal photocoagulation.
- Place spots in the peripheral retina for progressing retinopathy of prematurity. The procedure is called retinal photocoagulation.
- Treat certain types of wet age-related macular degeneration, a disease characterized by distorted central vision and damage to the central portion of the retina. One procedure is called focal retinal photocoagulation, and one procedure is called photodynamic therapy.